Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of many cannabinoid molecules produced by cannabis, second only to THC in abundance. These plant-derived cannabinoids, or phytocannabinoids (phyto = plant in Greek), are characterized by their ability to act on the cannabinoid receptors that are part of our endocannabinoid system. While THC is the principal psychoactive component of cannabis and has certain medical uses, CBD stands out because it is both non-intoxicating and displays a broad range of potential medical applications including helping with anxiety, inflammation, pain, and seizures. These makes CBD an attractive therapeutic compound.
Despite being chemical cousins, THC and CBD have very different effects. The primary difference is that THC get you high while CBD does not. This is because THC and CBD affect our endocannabinoid system (ECS) in different ways. The major ECS receptor in the brain, CB1, is activated by THC but not CBD. In fact, CBD can get in the way of compounds like THC, preventing them from activating the CB1 receptor. This is why the THC:CBD ratio is so important for influencing the effects of cannabis products.
Perhaps the most remarkable thing about CBD is the sheer number and variety of its potential therapeutic applications. It is important to recognize that each application may be supported by different levels of evidence. These range from ongoing clinical trials evaluating its efficacy in the treatment of human disorders, to animal studies investigating its behavioral and physiological effects, to in vitro work (test tube experiments) measuring its pharmacological interactions and mechanisms of action. Each type of study comes with its own strengths and weaknesses.
Industrial hemp is from the plant species Cannabis sativa and has been used worldwide to produce a variety of industrial and consumer products. Hemp is a source of fiber and oilseed grown in more than 30 nations. In the United States production is controlled under drug enforcement la
To produce industrial hemp in the United States the grower must obtain
a permit from the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA).
The confusion between industrial hemp and marijuana is based on the visual similarities of widely differentiated varieties of plants.
By definition, industrial hemp is high in fiber and low in active tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the apsychoactive ingredient in marijuana that makes some cannabis varieties a valued drug. Canada and the European Union maintain this distinction by strictly regulating the THC levels
of industrial hemp, requiring it to be less than 0.3 percent, compared
to THC levels of between 3 to
30 percent in marijuana.
Most pro-hemp initiatives in the United States are now focused on defining and distinguishing between industrial hemp and marijuana. Some pro-hemp supporters would like to move
the control of U.S. hemp production from the DEA to the USDA. Proponents of legalizing hemp also argue that
new technology to distinguish THC levels both in the field and from
the air will allow for adequate production enforcement.
Marketing Industrial hemp is marketed a fiber, as a seed, or as a dual-purpose crop. Although detailed market information for hemp ins not readily available, estimates from Vote Hemp show that the total retail value of hemp products in the U.S. in 2017 was $820 million. This includes food and body products, clothing, auto parts, building materials, and other products.
Cannabidiol is a popular natural remedy used for many common ailments. Better known as CBD, it is one of over 100 chemical compounds known as cannabinoids found in the cannabis or marijuana plant, Cannabis sativa (1Trusted Source).
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive cannabinoid found in cannabis, and causes the sensation of getting “high” that’s often associated with marijuana. However, unlike THC, CBD is not psychoactive.
This quality makes CBD an appealing option for those who are looking for relief from pain and other symptoms without the mind-altering effects of marijuana or certain pharmaceutical drugs. CBD oil is made by extracting CBD from the cannabis plant,
then diluting it with a carrier oil like coconut or hemp seed oil.
It’s gaining momentum in the
health and wellness world, with
some scientific studies confirming
it may ease symptoms of ailments
like chronic pain and anxiety.
Here are seven health benefits
of CBD oil that are backed by
Arcview Market Research and BDS Analytics have published the seventh edition of their "State of Legal Cannabis Markets" report.
In regulated markets, U.S. cannabis sales surged by 20 percent in 2018 and are on track to jump by another 36 percent this year, the report said.
The growth of the global cannabis market comes on the back of liberalization in existing markets and new countries introducing laws legalizing medical use.
BDS Analytics and Arcview said Luxembourg, Mexico and New Zealand are at the forefront of legalization, alongside South Korea and Thailand, both of which recently approved medical cannabis. In Africa three countries -- Lesotho, South Africa and Zimbabwe -- have cannabis development programs. These countries and others will bring spending outside North America to $5.8 billion by 2024, up from $517 million last year, BDS and Arcview said.
The U.S. remains to be the leader in terms of cannabis market size. The U.S. cannabinoid market is expected to soar, helped by a number of developments, such as the legalization of hemp via the 2018 Farm Bill.
The "State of Legal Cannabis Markets" report estimates that the total cannabinoid market in the U.S. -- which includes hemp-derived CBD -- will reach $44.8 billion by 2024.
This paper outlines the various stages of industrial hemp production from seed to soil to oil. We prepared this based on our experiences to date.
There are three main elements to industrial hemp production and the production of cannabidiol (CBD):
· Seeds and genetics
All three aspects are integral
to a full production process:
from seed to soil to oil.
2. Seeds and Genetics
Hemp grows all over the world in all types of environment, but no matter where you are, seeds and their genetics are important factors in growing hemp. Seed strains vary in cannabinoid, tetrahydrocannabinol, seed production, and fiber production. Choosing the correct strain for the intended outcome is vital and the particular plant that works in your climate and soil conditions will vary. Testing needs
to be carried out to see which strains will thrive in your environment. Greenhouses or indoor growing facilities are used to produce
3.1 Field Preparation
Field preparation is another important aspects of producing a healthy, flowerful crop. The better you can prepare your fields before you plant, the better the hemp crop will turn out. Hemp needs loose porous soil and
if the soil is too compact the roots
The ground needs to be broken up, disced and fertilized and
the beds shaped.
Hemp needs to be irrigated. Drip systems allow you to control exactly how much water is released onto the field at any given moment, letting you control how and when the plant feeds.
Planting seed at the correct depth is a critical part of growing hemp. If the seed is planted too deep, it will not sprout; if the seed is planted too shallow, it could die from exposure. Most conventional air seeders will work to set the appropriate seed depth with little modification.
Once the plants are growing in the fields you need to manage their growth and implement a proper nutrient regiment.
Harvest is where all the hard work of the season comes to an end. Inclement weather can make harvest difficult at times, so ensuring you are able to harvest properly and efficiently is essential. Also note that harvesting techniques are still evolving, making the process a work in progress.
Once harvested and baled, the hemp plants need to be dried. They can be dried in the field or using drying equipment, such as a drying floor. Once dry, the hemp is stored until it can pass through the sorting system.
3.7 Processing / Storage
Processing the material into a usable, extractable form is essential in producing high quality CBD oil. Once the biomass is dry, it needs to be processed to remove unwanted stems and seeds, and leave only extractable material which is then stored in super sacks until the biomass can be passed through the extraction process
CBD is extracted from the biomass using specialized equipment which uses either liquid CO₂ or ethanol as its extraction medium. The extracted CBD is put into containers and labelled, making it ready for transport and sale.
President Trump signed a new farm bill into law that legalized hemp, a non-intoxicating form of cannabis, in all 50 states. The farm bill includes a section removing hemp ― a term typically used to describe non-intoxicating forms of cannabis ― from the Controlled Substances Act. It allows for the commercial cultivation, research and development of hemp.
The legislation officially went into effect in January 2018. Previously hemp had been considered a Schedule I substance alongside more potent strains of marijuana, as well as other drugs like heroin, LSD and some deadly synthetic opioids. While other strains of cannabis with higher concentrations of THC, the primary psychoactive compound in marijuana, can get people high, hemp does not. Under the new bill, hemp is defined as any part of a marijuana plant with a THC concentration of 0.3 percent or less.
“This bill constitutes a momentous victory for the movement in support of hemp farming, and will have far-reaching positive impacts on rural economies and farming communities,” Eric Steenstra, president of Vote Hemp, a hemp industry advocacy nonprofit, said in a press release.
Hemp is grown most commonly for use in food, fuel and textiles. The crop also plays an important role in certain wellness products containing cannabidiol, or CBD, a non-intoxicating compound in cannabis that has become popular in recent years as a treatment for conditions including, seizures, anxiety and pain. CBD is typically derived from hemp.